|Contributor||Han de Koeijer|
The Central African Government ratified on March 15, 1995, the Convention on Biological Diversity resulting from the Conference of the United Nations and other partners held in Rio de Janeiro from January 3 to 14, 1992. This ratification required CAR to establishment of a National Strategy and an Action Plan for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity resources and the equitable sharing of revenues generated by their exploitation.
To this end, the Government has set up Project CAF / 96 / G-31 "National Strategy and Action Plan for Biological Diversity" financed by the GEF, through the UNDP to the tune of 178 US$300. The aim is to set up a national strategy followed by an action plan for biodiversity and agrobiodiversity.
The formulation of this strategy first led the project to carry out specific bibliographic studies on biodiversity and agrobiodiversity to make an inventory and conservation of the main biological resources on the one hand, followed by field studies according to the MARP method (Active Method of Participatory Research).
These studies made it possible to collect information at the local level and then to organize regional workshops with the main actors of the prefectures concerned.
The analysis of anthropogenic and socio-economic pressures, ecological problems on biological diversity and agrobiodiversity at the local and regional scale as well as the equitable sharing of the benefits resulting from their exploitation formed the basis of the exchanges of views which prevailed during the various popular consultations, notably through workshops.
The results of these workshops were then presented to the various actors from the hinterland during the national workshop organized in Bangui in January 2000.
The final goal is the establishment of an action plan for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity resources and the equitable sharing of the gains generated from their exploitation.
The problem of biosafety was examined at the level of each site with the various partners because it constitutes in certain zones a factor of potential disturbance of the resources of biological diversity and those of agrobiodiversity.
These problems arise in different ways, depending on the main ecosystems of the country, namely:
- dense humid forest;
- dense dry forest;
- the steppe.
It is also necessary to point out the case of the gallery forests along the rivers and the dense semi-humid forests which are forest witnesses in the Sudano-Guinean domain.
The dense humid forest is the ecosystem that appears to be the one that shelters the most animal and plant species and endemic species, followed by the dense dry forests and the gallery forests.
The identification and prioritization of human pressures and the analysis of the sustainability of resource exploitation systems on terrestrial biological diversity and the main causes of pressures by ecological region, show that the main factors are bush fires, agricultural clearing, industrial logging, cattle grazing followed by diamond and gold mining. The resulting threats are essentially the qualitative and quantitative alteration of the habitat, the scarcity of genetic resources and soil degradation. Savanization is a real threat for the extreme North-East of the country.
The development of an action plan is welcome to find solutions to the threats that weigh on biological diversity in the Central African Republic with regard to aquatic biological resources.